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subjunctive

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Nhắn tin cho tác giả
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Nguồn:
Người gửi: Nguyễn Ngọc Phương
Ngày gửi: 19h:58' 03-05-2008
Dung lượng: 42.0 KB
Số lượt tải: 426
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Part I: The past subjunctive
* The past subjunctive is the form which is not true at present and in the past. It appears in:
1. The conditional “type II” and “type III”
- Type II: If the Earth were an apple, I would eat it.
- Type III: If it hadn’t rained yesterday, I would have gone a pinic.
2. The structure: Đã đến lúc……….
It’s time ………………
It’s high time………… S + V(past subjunctive) (be = were)
It’s about time ……….
Ex: It’s high time we worked harder: Đã đến lúc chúng ta cần làm việc chăm chỉ hơn
3. The structure: as if/ as though: như thể là…
a) S + V(present simple) + as if/ as though + S + V(past subjunctive) (be = were)
Use: not true in the present (She loves me as if/ as though she were my mother)
b) S + V(past simple) + as if/ as though + S + V(past perfect)
Use: not true in the past (She talked as if/ as though she had known I was ill.)
Notes: So sánh: as if (though) và seem (appear)
Các từ trên đều biểu thị: dường như, có vẻ… nhưng có sự khác nhau
+) seem và appear: là kể về sự thực hoặc gần như sự thực -> dùng dạng câu bình thường.
+) as if và as though: trên thực tế là không phảI mà chỉ là “tưa như”
Trong trường hợp “as if(though)” gặp phải “it seems …” thi ta có thể dùng như “seem” để biểu thị có khả năng là sự thực: There are black clouds in the sky, It looks as if it’s going to rain.
4. The structure: would rather: ai đó thích ai đó làm gì hơn.
S + would rather + S + V(past subjunctive) (be = were)
(eg: I would rather you stayed at home)
5. The structure: wishes: ước
a) wishes for future and present:
S + wish(es) (that) + S + V(past subjunctive) (be = were)
Ex: - I don’t live in Ho Chi Ming city now -> I wish (that) I lived in Ho Chi Minh city now.
- I can’t play the piano -> I wish I could play the piano.
Notes: S + wish(es) + S + would + V(inf) in the following cases:
- Have a future adverb: tomorrow, next week/ month…..
Ex: He will not visit me tomorrow -> I wish he would visit me tomorrow
- Talk about the weather: dissatisfied with the weather and expect it to change.
Ex: It’s raining now -> I wish it would stop raining.
- Dissatisfied with ones character, expect them to change.
Ex: Lan always goes to school late -> I wish Lan wouldn’t go to school late.
b) wishes for the past (not true in the past)
S + wish + (that) + S + V(past perfect)
Ex: I didn’t know you were ill -> I wish I had known you were ill.
Notes: if only = I wish/ we wish (ex: if only you were here now)
Part II: subjunctive sentences
* Là hình thức dùng động từ nguyên thể khi động từ đó đứng sau một số động từ và tính từ nhất định để chỉ ai đó muốn ai đó làm gì. Trong câu bắt buộc phải có “that”
1. S + V(any tenses) + that + S + (should) + V(inf)
(demand = require = request, advise = recommend, ask, suggest, urge, insist (nài nỉ), order, propose, prefer
Ex: The doctor suggested that he (should) stop smoking.
We proposed that he go to shool on time
(Note: Nếu không có “that” ta dùng cấu trúc: S + V(any tenses) + sb to do st)
2. It + to be(any tenses) + adj + that + S + (should) + V(inf)
(important, necessary = essential, urgent, recommended, suggested…)
Ex: it was important that he stay in bed for a few days
Exercises on subjunctive
I. Choose the best answer in brackets by underlining it:
1. He asked me (do/ to do/ doing) my homework before going to bed.
2. Mary suggested that they (go/ are going/ went) togetther.
3. It is necessary that she (understand/ understands/ understood) what he says.
4. She (said/told/ recommended) that they go to Pazza for a drink.
5. We (asked/ told/ suggested) working collaboratively on the project. (hợp tác)
6. It is (recommended/ recommending/ recommends) that we stop working and have a holyday
7. It is urgent that she (left/ leave/ is leaving) now.
8. The teacher requested that all students (leave/ to leave/ left) the room .
9. She suggested (to go/ going/ go) to the dancing club tonight.
10. It was important that he (agrees/ agree/ agreeing) to help us.
11. if I (am / was/ were) you, I would not do such a thing.
12. if you (shall/ should) ever see him, please hand him this note.
13. She (requested/ said/ suggested/ told) that we were not strong enough to do the job.
14. It is interesting (that she know/ knowing/ to know) the truth.
15. Our teacher requested the report (be completed/ should completed/ was completed) by the end of the month.
II. Rewrite the following sentences as shown:
1. I think it may rain. -> it looks as …………………………………………………………..
2. Without your help, I might have failed. -> If it ………………………………………………
3. He talks like a baby. -> He talks as …………………………………………………………..
4. If it had been fine then, I would have gone fishing. -> Had …………...…………………….
5. We have to go otherwise we’ll late. -> It’s ………………………………………………….
6. I don’t like you smoke in here -> I’d ……………………………………………………….
7. “If I were you I wouldn’t trust Peter” She tod Jonh. -> She advised ………………………..
8. I am sorry I am not living near your house. -> I wish ……………………………………….
9. He appears to be running away from your fierce dog. -> It looks…………………………….
10. I would love to be rich and famous. -> if only ………………………………………………
11. I prefer going out for a meal to staying at home. -> I’d rather ……………………………...
12. We’d better buy a new cooker. -> It’s ……………………………………………………...
13. It’s a pity that you made a lot of mistakes. -> I’d …………………………………………...
14. She wants to go to Las Vegas more than anywhere in the world. -> She’d …………………
15. I’m sorry now that I asked her to stay. -> Now I wish………………………………………
III. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:
It’s high time for us (leave). ……………………………………
If only I (have) a phone. I’m tired of (queue) outside the public phone box……………..
You (have) better take off your wet shoes………………………….
He walks as if he (have) a wooden leg………………………….
He talks as if he (do) all the work himself, but in fact Tom and I did most of it…………
I hate driving. I’d much rather you (drive)………………………………………….
I wish I (not try) to repair it. I only made it worse. …………………………………
He looks as though he never (get) a square meal, but in fact his wife feeds him very well…………………….. (thành thật, thẳng thắn)

 
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