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SENTENCE PROBLEMS

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Người gửi: Nguyễn Ngọc Sỹ (trang riêng)
Ngày gửi: 10h:10' 25-06-2008
Dung lượng: 60.0 KB
Số lượt tải: 397
Số lượt thích: 1 người (Hoàng Hồng Trang)
UNIT 17: SENTENCE PROBLEMS

GRAMMAR PRESENTATION
I. SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
1. What is a sentence fragment?
Sentence fragments are incomplete sentences or parts of sentences. Remember that a complete sentence must contain at least one main or independent clause. In a fragment, something is missing (usually a subject or a verb); therefore, a fragment usually fails to convey a clear message.
2. How to correct sentence fragments:
Study the following four examples of sentence fragments and the suggested methods for correcting them.
Fragment: Because some students have part-time jobs in addition to going to school.
Problem: This is a subordinate clause (an adverb clause of reason).
To correct: Attach it to an independent clause.
Complete Sentence: Because some students have part-time jobs in addition to going to school, they have very little free time.

Fragment: For example, the increase in the cost of renting an apartment.
Problem: No main verb
To correct: Rewrite the sentence so that it has a subject and a verb.
Complete Sentence: For example, the cost of renting an apartment has increased.

Fragment: Having no money and being lonely in the big city.
Problem: This is a participial phrase. It has no subject or verb.
To correct: (a) Rewrite the phrase to include a subject and a verb.
(b) Attach the phrase to an independent clause.
Complete Sentences:
(a) She had no money and was lonely in the big city.
(b) Having no money and being lonely in the big city, the woman committed suicide.

Fragment: Many people who get married before they mature enough.
Problem: This is a noun followed by a dependent (adjective) clause.
To correct: Rewrite the clause by eliminating the adjective clause aspect.
Complete Sentence: Many people get married before they mature enough.

Always check your own writing for sentence fragments! Pay particular attention to your sentences beginning with subordinating conjunctions (although, since, because, if, before, etc). These are DANGER WORDS. Make sure that every subordinate clause beginning with these words is attached to an independent clause.
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PRACTICE
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Exercise 1: Read the following sentences. Mark them F if they are sentence fragments, or S if they are complete sentences. On a separate piece of paper, rewrite each fragment to make a complete sentence:
Looking at the yellow leaves on the path.
The desire of all mankind to live in peace and freedom, for example.
Second, the fact that men are physically stronger than women.
The best movie that I saw last year.
For example, many students have part-time jobs.
Although people want to believe that all men are created equal.
Finding a suitable marriage partner is a challenging task.
Many of my friends who didn`t have the opportunity to go to college.
Working during the morning and attending classes during the afternoons.
Because I don`t feel that grades in college have any value.
The nuclear accident that occurred in Russia in 1968, the worst nuclear accident in history.
The first hint of the tragedy came two days after the accident occurred.
I often wonder about the road not taken.
Eyes beaming and tears of joy streaming down her cheeks.
The aroma of home-made bread always makes me think of my dad.
II. RUN - ON SENTENCES AND COMMA SPLICES
1. What is a run-on sentence?
A run -on sentence or a fused sentence is a sentence in which two or more independent clauses are written one after another without any punctuation.
Ex: Run-on: -Getting married is easy staying married is a different matter.

2. What is a comma splice?
A similar error happens when two independent clauses are incorrectly joined by a comma without a coordinating conjunction. This kind of error is also called a comma splice.
Ex: Comma Splice: - San Francisco is a very cosmopolitan city, there are people many cultures and ethnic groups living there.

Note: A comma alone cannot join two independent clauses.

3. How to correct run-on / comma splice sentences:
A run-on / comma splice sentence can be corrected by adding:
a period:
Getting married is easy. Staying married is a different matter.
a semicolon:
Getting married is easy; staying married is a different matter.
a coordinating conjunction:
Getting married is easy, but staying married is a different matter.
a conjunctive adverb, a linking word or phrase such as therefore, moreover, consequently, as a result, however,..
Getting married is easy; however, staying married is a different matter.
Getting married is easy. However, staying married is a different matter.
a subordinating conjunction:
Although getting married is easy, staying married is a different matter.
PRACTICE
Exercise 2: Corrected the following run-on / comma splice sentences.
A foreign student faces many problems, for example, he has to cope with a new culture.
San Francisco is a very cosmopolitan city, there are people many cultures and ethnic groups living there.
Learning a new language is like learning to swim it takes a lot of time.
Ask for assistance at the reference desk in the library, there is always a librarian there.
Hang-gliding is a dangerous sport you can easily break your leg.
You can`t come into this room we are having a lesson.
I need a hammer, I am going to repair the shed.
My husband is very upright if I hazard receiving the bribe and he knows he will blame me.
I do not like the registration process, I know that at this point I have no choice but to go through with it.
He even quit his summer job this year he did not want to get up early each morning.

Exercise 3: Some of the following sentences are run-ons or comma splices, and some are correct. Check each sentence. If it is incorrect, write RO or CS in the space at the left. If the sentence is correct, leave the space blank. Then on a separate sheet of paper, rewrite the incorrect sentences correctly.
Example:
..RO.. Two letters arrived on Monday a third came con Wednesday.
.......An encyclopedia is a valuable source of information, it contains summaries of every area of knowledge.
....... Because of the rapid expansion of human knowledge, it is difficult to keep encyclopedia current.
....... Almost as soon as an encyclopedia is published, it becomes obsolete.
.......Home editions encyclopedias are shorter and more concise than library editions, they don`t contain as much detailed information.
.......Articles in encyclopedias are written by experts in each subjects, who are often university professors.
.......An editor of an encyclopedia doesn`t write articles he only collects and edits articles written by other experts.
.......To find a boob on a certain subject, you should look in the card catalog but to find a magazine article on a subject, you should look in a periodical index.
.......A periodical index, which is also called a periodical guide, does not contain any articles, it merely gives a list of articles and tell you where to find them.
.......The reference room of the library has several periodical indexes on is the Reader`s Guide to Periodical Literature.
........If you can`t find any information on a subject, you can always ask a librarian to help you, they are paid to assist students.
______________________________________________________
III. CHOPPY SENTENCES
1. What is a choppy sentence?

Choppy sentences are sentences that are too short. They are the result of using too many simple sentences, like those that follow. Although simple sentences are quite effective sometimes, overuse of them is considered poor style in academic writing.

Examples:
Choppy: I sewed a set of buttons onto my coat. The buttons were shiny. The buttons were black. The coat was old. The coat was green.
I sewed a set of shiny black buttons onto my old green coat.
Choppy: Martha moved in the desk chair. Her moving was uneasy. The chair was hard. She worked at her assignment. The assignment was for her English class.
a) Martha moved uneasily in the hard desk chair, working at the assignment for her English class.
b) Moving uneasily in the desk chair, Martha worked at her assignment for her English class.
c) Martha moved uneasily in the hard desk chair as she worked at her assignment for her English class.
d) While she worked at the assignment for her English class, Martha moved uneasily in the hard desk chair.
2. How to correct choppy sentences:
Choppy sentences are easy to correct. Just combine two or three simple sentences to make one compound or complex sentence. Your decision to make one compound or a complex sentence should be based on whether the ideas in the simple sentences are equal or whether one sentence is dependent on the other.
If the simple sentences are equal, make a compound sentence, using a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) or a conjunctive adverb (moreover, however, otherwise, therefore, etc.)
If one sentence depends on the other, make a complex sentence, using a subordinating conjunction (who, which, when, although, because, since, if, etc.)


PRACTICE
Exercise 4: Improve the following choppy sentences by combining them to make either compound or complex sentences:
Gasoline is becoming expensive. Automobile manufacturers are producing smaller cars. Smaller cars use less gasoline.
The computer has undoubtedly benefited humanity. The computer has also created problems for humanity.
Government and private agencies have spent billions of dollars advertising the dangers of smoking. The number of smokers is still increasing.
Some students go to a vocational school to learn a trade. Some students go to college to get a degree.
There is no time to make a pot roast. There is no time to cook a chicken. There is no time to prepare a stew.
Yesterda
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Thanks for your contributing. At the moment I necessarily need it. I greatfully appreciate you. Thank again and best wishes to you. Enjoy your Tet holiday with happiness, success and good health. Cheers>>>>

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Thanks for your contributing. At the moment I necessarily need it. I greatfully appreciate you. Thank again and / best wishes to you. Enjoy your Tet holiday with happiness, success and good health. Cheers>>>> [sic]  (???) + Only in ONE SHORT sentence can 7 mistakes be found! If you should find yourself unable to express in correct English, do it in Vietnamese. Another forum might suit your GREAT writing skill, I should say, Mr. Nguyen Duy Trung.

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I watched my sister, a cleanliness fanatic, put away the produce. First she washed all the bananas and oranges, then she rubbed the onions with a towel.

Câu này sai lỗi gì ạ, sửa thế nào thì đúng ạ? Sửa thế này có được ko ạ?

I watched my sister, who put away the produce, is a cleanliness fanatic and . First she washed all the bananas and oranges, then she rubbed the onions with a towel.

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QUÝ THẦY CÔ CÓ THỂ GIÚP EM ? LÀM SAO ĐỂ PHÂN BIỆT CÂU ĐƠN VÀ CÂU GHÉP KHI CÂU ĐƠN ĐÓ CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP NHƯ TRONG TÀI LUEEUJ CỦA THẦY SỸ:ĐÚNG RA THÌ CÁC TRƯỜNG HỢP DƯỚI LÀ CÂU GHÉP PHẢI KHÔNG CÁC THẦY CÔ. THEO NHƯ SÁCH CỦA TRƯƠNG QUANG PHÚ ( ĐẠI HỌC SƯ PHAM TP HCM THÌ CÂU SAU ĐÂY LÀ CÂU GHÉP

 

 

         Ex: The children smiled and waved at us.

 

or several subjects and verbs ( a compound subject and a compound verb):

 

     Ex: Manny, Joe, and Jack lubricated my car, replaced the oil filter, and cleaned the spark plugs.

 

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lam sao e co the tai dap an bai unit 17 sentence problem.voi lai e thay cuon sach nay cung hay nhung e ko biet lam sao tai ve dk.help me,thank

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có bác nào biết đáp án unit 17 này k? em đang cần gấp, mấy bác giúp em với. tks

 
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