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    Lexicology

    (Tài liệu chưa được thẩm định)
    Nguồn:
    Người gửi: Ngô Thị Thu Hiền (trang riêng)
    Ngày gửi: 13h:09' 07-10-2008
    Dung lượng: 112.5 KB
    Số lượt tải: 396
    Số lượt thích: 0 người
    Lexicology
    Contents
    Word structure and formation
    Semantics
    Types of meaning
    The components of lexical meaning
    The types of lexical meaning
    Motivation of words
    Polysemy ans semantic structure
    The stylistic aspect of English vocabulary
    Polysemy, homonymy and context
    Homonyms
    Synomyms
    Antonyms
    Semantic change
    phraseology
    A. Word Structure
    I. Definition of word
    A word is a dialectical unity of form and content, independent unit of language to form a sentence by itself
    Ex.: How many words are there?
    Book
    Bookish
    Unlucky
    White-wash
    Kiss-me-quick
    Merry-go-round
    Whatchagonna do? (in speech)
    Bedda boda bida budder (in speech)
    Useful= use + ful (full of)
    bookish=book+ ish (in the sense of, somewhat like)
    ( words made up of smaller meaningful units
    2. Morpheme
    The minimal meaningful language units
    One word can be one morpheme but normally one morpheme has its sound form and meaning but not independent
    3. Types of morphemes
    Root morphemes
    Affixational morphemes
    a. Root morpheme
    Also called lexical morpheme
    Primary element of a word and conveys its essential lexical meaning
    Free, independent morphemes
    * Identify the root morphemes
    Lovely
    Beautiful
    Reddish
    Entertainment
    Action
    Teacher
    Assumption
    - Most root morphemes can function independently, few are bound, i.e morphemes that cannot function independently
    Ex.: “clude” in conclude, include, exclude
    b. Affixational morphemes
    Grammatical morphemes
    Derivational morphemes
    * Grammatical morphemes
    Also called “inflection” or “ending”
    Create different forms of the same word, carries grammatical meanings only
    A complete set of forms of a word in an inflectional pattern is called “inflectional paradigm”
    Girl-girls-girl’s-girls’

    Quick-quicker-quickest

    Open-opens-opening-opened-opened
    * Derivational morphemes
    Carries both lexical and grammatical meanings
    Also called “lexico-grammatical morphemes”
    Ex.: pre-, un-, re-, -ness, -ful
    Used to create new words
    Summary of morphemes
    
    Types of words
    Simple words: consists of a root morpheme
    Derived words: root + one/more derivational morpheme
    Compound words: at least two roots, with/without morphemes
    B. Word formation:
    I. Affixation
    SEMI-AFFIXES
    - Have lexical meanings as well as the great ability to combine with other roots
    “Man”, “like”: childlike, spokesman
    “mini”, “self”: self-study, minitest

    

    1. Prefixation
    Do(redo
    Use(misuse
    - Prefixes rarely form new parts of speech
    - Some prefixes coincide with prepositions or adverbs: over, up, out
    Ex.: Upgrade, overgrow, outlive, download
    * Meanings of prefixes

    Meanings of prefixes
    Examples
    
    Negative
    Unlucky, dislike, misunderstand
    
    Reversal or repetition
    Rewrite, unlock, disconnect
    
    Space & time relationship
    Preview, postgraduate, superbus
    
    2. Suffixation
    

    a. Polysemy of suffixes
    -s: spectacles (= glasses, plural of spectacle)

    -er: teacher (=doer of an action), Londoner (= person living in a place), can opener (=tool, instrument)
    b. Classification of suffixes
    Noun-suffixes
    Adjective –suffixes
    Verb-suffixes
    Adverb-suffixes
    3. Origin of derivational affixes
    Native affixes: un-, out-, mis-
    Foreign affixes: - ation (borrowed with words)
    Hybrid affixes: -ist, -able (roots and affixes of different origns)
    II. Compounding
    1. Defination:
    What is compounding?
    Is the building of a new word by joining two or more words.
    A compound word consists of at least two root morphemes, one expresses a general meaning (determinatum), and the other being the determining one (determinant)
    Determinatum undergoes inflection
    2. Criteria of compound words
    Phonological criterion
    Inseparability criterion
    Semantic criterion
    Graphic criterion
    a. Phonological criterion
    Compounds: primary stress on the first element
    Free group words: primary stress on the second element
    WHITE House # white HOUSE
    A: Look at the beautiful dancing GIRL
    B: She is a well-known DANCING girl
    b. Inseperability criterion
    Compounds: indivisible. Between the two elements of compound words, it is impossible to insert another word
    Armchairs, white collar
    c. Semantic criterion
    Compounds: expresses a single idea although it consists of two or more words
    Greenhouse
    Green house
    d. Graphic criterion
    Compounds: often spelled with a hyphen or no separation
    Mother-in-law
    chatterbox
    Note
    One criterion is not sufficient enough to define whether a group of words is a compound or not. We have to base on at least two criteria
    3. Classification of compounds
    a.According to the meaning
    Idiomatic: red tape, lip-service
    Non-idiomatic: lip

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