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Lexicology

(Tài liệu chưa được thẩm định)
Nguồn:
Người gửi: Ngô Thị Thu Hiền (trang riêng)
Ngày gửi: 13h:09' 07-10-2008
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Lexicology
Contents
Word structure and formation
Semantics
Types of meaning
The components of lexical meaning
The types of lexical meaning
Motivation of words
Polysemy ans semantic structure
The stylistic aspect of English vocabulary
Polysemy, homonymy and context
Homonyms
Synomyms
Antonyms
Semantic change
phraseology
A. Word Structure
I. Definition of word
A word is a dialectical unity of form and content, independent unit of language to form a sentence by itself
Ex.: How many words are there?
Book
Bookish
Unlucky
White-wash
Kiss-me-quick
Merry-go-round
Whatchagonna do? (in speech)
Bedda boda bida budder (in speech)
Useful= use + ful (full of)
bookish=book+ ish (in the sense of, somewhat like)
( words made up of smaller meaningful units
2. Morpheme
The minimal meaningful language units
One word can be one morpheme but normally one morpheme has its sound form and meaning but not independent
3. Types of morphemes
Root morphemes
Affixational morphemes
a. Root morpheme
Also called lexical morpheme
Primary element of a word and conveys its essential lexical meaning
Free, independent morphemes
* Identify the root morphemes
Lovely
Beautiful
Reddish
Entertainment
Action
Teacher
Assumption
- Most root morphemes can function independently, few are bound, i.e morphemes that cannot function independently
Ex.: “clude” in conclude, include, exclude
b. Affixational morphemes
Grammatical morphemes
Derivational morphemes
* Grammatical morphemes
Also called “inflection” or “ending”
Create different forms of the same word, carries grammatical meanings only
A complete set of forms of a word in an inflectional pattern is called “inflectional paradigm”
Girl-girls-girl’s-girls’

Quick-quicker-quickest

Open-opens-opening-opened-opened
* Derivational morphemes
Carries both lexical and grammatical meanings
Also called “lexico-grammatical morphemes”
Ex.: pre-, un-, re-, -ness, -ful
Used to create new words
Summary of morphemes

Types of words
Simple words: consists of a root morpheme
Derived words: root + one/more derivational morpheme
Compound words: at least two roots, with/without morphemes
B. Word formation:
I. Affixation
SEMI-AFFIXES
- Have lexical meanings as well as the great ability to combine with other roots
“Man”, “like”: childlike, spokesman
“mini”, “self”: self-study, minitest



1. Prefixation
Do(redo
Use(misuse
- Prefixes rarely form new parts of speech
- Some prefixes coincide with prepositions or adverbs: over, up, out
Ex.: Upgrade, overgrow, outlive, download
* Meanings of prefixes

Meanings of prefixes
Examples

Negative
Unlucky, dislike, misunderstand

Reversal or repetition
Rewrite, unlock, disconnect

Space & time relationship
Preview, postgraduate, superbus

2. Suffixation


a. Polysemy of suffixes
-s: spectacles (= glasses, plural of spectacle)

-er: teacher (=doer of an action), Londoner (= person living in a place), can opener (=tool, instrument)
b. Classification of suffixes
Noun-suffixes
Adjective –suffixes
Verb-suffixes
Adverb-suffixes
3. Origin of derivational affixes
Native affixes: un-, out-, mis-
Foreign affixes: - ation (borrowed with words)
Hybrid affixes: -ist, -able (roots and affixes of different origns)
II. Compounding
1. Defination:
What is compounding?
Is the building of a new word by joining two or more words.
A compound word consists of at least two root morphemes, one expresses a general meaning (determinatum), and the other being the determining one (determinant)
Determinatum undergoes inflection
2. Criteria of compound words
Phonological criterion
Inseparability criterion
Semantic criterion
Graphic criterion
a. Phonological criterion
Compounds: primary stress on the first element
Free group words: primary stress on the second element
WHITE House # white HOUSE
A: Look at the beautiful dancing GIRL
B: She is a well-known DANCING girl
b. Inseperability criterion
Compounds: indivisible. Between the two elements of compound words, it is impossible to insert another word
Armchairs, white collar
c. Semantic criterion
Compounds: expresses a single idea although it consists of two or more words
Greenhouse
Green house
d. Graphic criterion
Compounds: often spelled with a hyphen or no separation
Mother-in-law
chatterbox
Note
One criterion is not sufficient enough to define whether a group of words is a compound or not. We have to base on at least two criteria
3. Classification of compounds
a.According to the meaning
Idiomatic: red tape, lip-service
Non-idiomatic: lip
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